Baumann rule

2022 marks the 110th anniversary of the Bauman formula, which plays an important role in estimating efficiency losses due to steam wetness.

The classical approach to quantifying wetness loss is via the Baumann rule, which correlates the mean wetness ym (sometimes weighted to account for the dry stages) with the fractional drop in total-to-static efficiency relative to a dry expansion with the same inlet and outlet pressures. Thus,

In Baumann’s original rule the parameter α (known as the Baumann factor) is unity, but more recent efficiency measurements and theoretical estimates give values in the range 0.4–2.5. Different forms of Equilibrium are in modern use and, of particular note, Kreitmeier et al. show that less scatter in α is obtained if the reference process is a wet equilibrium (rather than dry) expansion.

The Baumann rule provides a useful guide during the early stages of design, but it has very little physical basis and gives no insight into the different sources of loss.

(Source: S. Senoo, A.J. White  Advances in Steam Turbines for Modern Power Plants, 2017

Brief history of the Central Boiler and Turbine Institute (CKTI):

CKTI was established in 1927, during the implementation of the State Plan for the Electrification of Russia (GOELRO), on the initiative of leading scientists — Academician A.F. Ioffe, Corresponding Members of the Academy of Sciences M.V. Kirpichev and M.A. Shatelen, Professor V.N.Shroeter — for the purpose of scientific and technical support of domestic power engineering and energy generation.

Since 1935, the Institute has been called CKTI (Central Boiler and Turbine Institute).

The main areas of work were: the creation of a theory for modeling heat transfer processes, the theory and systems of automatic control, methods for calculating circulation, the study of in-boiler processes, combustion processes, high-velocity flows, the study of cascades of profiles of turbines and turbomachines, issues of strength and service life of power equipment, etc.

Fundamental research and development carried out at CKTI, created normative methods of calculation and design became the basis for the development of domestic power engineering.

In 1947, the Institute was named after the famous Russian heat engineer Ivan Polzunov.

In 1976, by the decision of the Government, on the basis of CKTI, the Scientific and Industrial Association on Research and Design of Power Equipment — NPO CKTI was established.

In different years, such outstanding scientists as the future Academician S.S. Kutateladze, Professor I.I. Kirillov, Academician L.A. Shubenko-Shubin, Corr. Academy of Sciences M.A. Styrikovich and others.

CKTI has cooperated and continues to cooperate with many global companies and their successors and followers, in particular, with Skoda, Brown, Boveri & Cie, ABB, Alstom, GE, MAN, Ansaldo, IPRI, Mitsubishi, Siemens, etc.

JSC «NPO CKTI» is a leading scientific and engineering center of domestic power engineering, the company is focused on the development and promotion of new technologies and innovative products in relation to nuclear, thermal and hydraulic power plants (NPP, TPP, HPP), industrial and municipal energy.

In 2022 JSC NPO CKTI celebrates its 95th anniversary.

©The third international Bauman conference on the problems of wet steam © 2022
© Central Boiler and Turbine Institute (CKTI)